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In this paper, the Barrow Neurological Institute shares

Experts agree that levels of Gd retention can vary among macrocyclic agents.2-6 Peer reviewed studies demonstrate that at up to 5 weeks ProHance (Gadoteridol)® has the lowest Gd retention in the brain in animal studies.2,3,6,7

Although the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) agree that there are no known adverse clinical consequences associated with Gd retention in the brain based on the available data,6,7 some practitioners may have concerns in light of the litigation environment surrounding GBCAs.

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In this paper, the Barrow Neurological Institute shares

  • Their rationale for switching to a macrocyclic GBCA
  • How differences between macrocyclics weighed into their choice of agent
  • Outcomes and experience with ProHance to date
Important Safety Information

ProHance® (Gadoteridol) Injection, 279.3 mg/mL
and ProHance® Multipack (Gadoteridol) Injection, 279.3 mg/mL

Indications and Usage:

ProHance® (Gadoteridol) Injection, 279.3 mg/mL is indicated for use in MRI in adults and children over 2 years of age to visualize lesions with abnormal vascularity in the brain (intracranial lesions), spine and associated tissues.


ProHance® (Gadoteridol) Injection, 279.3 mg/mL is indicated for use in MRI in adults to visualize lesions in the head and neck.



Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) increase the risk for NSF among patients with impaired elimination of the drugs. Avoid use of GBCAs in these patients unless the diagnostic information is essential and not available with non-contrasted MRI or other modalities. NSF may result in fatal or debilitating systemic fibrosis affecting the skin, muscle and internal organs.
  • The risk for NSF appears highest among patients with:
    • chronic, severe kidney disease (GFR <30 mL/min/1.73m2), or
    • acute kidney injury.
  • Screen patients for acute kidney injury and other conditions that may reduce renal function. For patients at risk for chronically reduced renal function (e.g. age > 60 years, hypertension or diabetes), estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) through laboratory testing.
  • For patients at highest risk for NSF, do not exceed the recommended ProHance dose and allow a sufficient period of time for elimination of the drug from the body prior to re-administration (see WARNINGS).

As with all paramagnetic agents, caution should be exercised in patients with deoxygenated sickle erythrocytes and renal insufficiency with or without hepatic impairment. The possibility of a reaction, including serious, life threatening, or fatal, anaphylactic or cardiovascular reactions, or other idiosyncratic reactions, should always be considered, especially in those patients with a history of a known clinical hypersensitivity or a history of asthma or other allergic disorders. Trace amounts of gadolinium may remain for months or years in the body organs including bone (highest concentration), brain, liver, spleen, kidneys and skin. Consequences of gadolinium retention in the brain have not been established. Pathologic and clinical consequences of retention in skin and other organs have been established in patients with impaired renal function. Minimize repetitive GBCA imaging studies, particularly close spaced studies when possible.

Please see full Prescribing Information and Patient Medication Guide for additional important safety information for/regarding ProHance® (Gadoteridol) Injection, 279.3 mg/mL at

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA.
Visit or call 1-800-FDA-1088

ProHance is manufactured for Bracco Diagnostics Inc. by BIPSO GmbH – 78224 Singen (Germany).

ProHance is a registered trademark of Bracco Diagnostics Inc.

ProHance Multipack is a trademark of Bracco Diagnostics Inc.

All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

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Monroe Township, NJ 08831 USA
Phone: 609-514-2200
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Fax: 609-514-2446

©2020 Bracco Diagnostics Inc. All Rights Reserved.


  1. Data on file. Bracco Diagnostics Inc. based on IQVIA DDD: January 2020.
  2. Bussi S, Coppo A, Botteron C, et al. Differences in gadolinium retention after repeated injections of macrocyclic MR contrast agents to rats. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2018;47(3):746-752. (Macrocyclic MR contrast agents administered to rats over a 5 week period and Gd retention tested 4 weeks after last administration).
  3. McDonald RJ, McDonald JS, Dai D, et al. Comparison of gadolinium concentrations within multiple rat organs after intravenous administration of linear versus macrocyclic gadolinium chelates. Radiology. 2017; 285(2):536-545. (Linear and macrocyclic MR contrast agents administered to rats over a 26 day period and Gd retention tested 7 days after final administration).
  4. Guo BJ, Yang ZL, Zhang LJ. Gadolinium deposition in brain: current scientific evidence and future perspectives. Front Mol Neurosci. 2018;11:335. (Review article).
  5. McDonald RJ, Levine D, Weinreb J, et al. Gadolinium retention: a research roadmap from the 2018 NIH/ACR/RSNA workshop on gadolinium chelates. Radiology. 2018;289(2):517-534.
  6. Bussi S, Coppo A, Celeste R, et al. Macrocyclic MR contrast agents: evaluation of multiple-organ gadolinium retention in healthy rats. Insights Imaging. 2020;11(11)
  7. Jost G, Frenzel T, Boyken J, Lohrke J, Nischwitz V, Pietsch H. Long-term excretion of gadolinium-based contrast agents: linear versus macrocyclic agents in an experimental rat model. Radiology. 2018;13:180135. (Linear and macrocyclic MR contrast agents administered to rats over a 2 week period and Gd retention tested 5, 26 and 52 weeks after administration).
  8. ACR Committee on Drugs and Contrast Media. ACR Manual on Contrast Media. Version 10.3.2018. Accessed January 2019.
  9. FDA Drug Safety Communication: New warnings for using gadolinium-based contrast agents in patients with kidney dysfunction. FDA website. Accessed December 19, 2018.
  10. Murata N, Gonzalez-Cuyar LF, Murata K, et al. Macrocyclic and other non-group 1 gadolinium contrast agents deposit low levels of gadolinium in brain and bone tissue: preliminary results from 9 patients with normal renal function. Invest Radiol. 2016;51(7):447-453. (Tissue samples were collected from 9 decedents undergoing autopsy who had contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with only single agent exposure to a non-Group 1 Gd-based contrast agent).
  11. Aime, S. Letters to the Editor Differences in Molecular Structure Markedly Affect GBCA Elimination Behavior. Radiology 2019; Published Online: Feb 26 2019